Thursday, July 18, 2019

AIDS Survivor Syndrome & Understanding the Linkages between Mental Health and HIV/AIDS

By: John Williamson, intern, ADAP Advocacy Association, and candidate for Masters in Social Work

In the early years of monotherapy treatment, a person living with HIV at the age of 20 had an additional life expectancy of 11.8 years (Gueler, A., Moser, A., Egger, M. et al., 2017). Gueler et al. (2017) reports that since the introduction of the combination antiretroviral treatment, that number has risen to a life expectancy of 54.9 years. As medical treatments continue to increase the survival rate among people living with HIV/AIDS, we must continue working to understand the psychological challenges the infection has on ones mental well being. We are often familiar with the physical and medical aspects associated with HIV/AIDS, however, the social and psychological factors are equally important as they can shape the experience of what it is like to be a person living with HIV (Roger, K., Mignone, J., & Kirkland, S., 2013).

According to HIV.gov (2019), people who are HIV positive are at an increased risk of developing an anxiety, cognitive or mood disorder, and depression. During a cross sectional survey in 2003 researchers found that more than 1 in 3 people who are living with an HIV infection have also been diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder. While there is a significant amount of individuals who are diagnosed with a co-occurring mental health condition and HIV/AIDS fewer than one half of depression cases get recognized clinically in people with HIV (Asch, S., Kilbourne A., Gifford A., et al., 2003). Asch et al.,(2003) also found that individuals with a co-occurring mental health diagnosis of depression and an HIV infection only get treated 18% of the time for their depression, 7% get treated adequately, and only 5% achieve remission. This means that 82% of people who are dually diagnosed with HIV and depression do not receive treatment for their depression.

There are 1.6 million people in the United States living with HIV/AIDS with over half of them aged 50 or older and an expectation that  it will rise to 70% by 2020 (T.Anderson, 2016). Tez Anderson (seen below), Founder of Let’s Kick ASS, an AIDS Survivor Advocacy Group coined the term AIDS Survivor Syndrome (ASS) to describe the “spectrum of sustained trauma survivorship resulting from living through the AIDS pandemic.” People who are living with HIV/AIDS face a historically unique set of barriers including complicated bereavement, trauma, guilt, loss of relationships or community, and increased risk of depression, suicidality, and social withdrawal (Nord, 1996). One of the factors that distinguishes the trauma of someone living with HIV/AIDS from other tragedies or disasters, is the ongoing impact the infection has on a survivor, ultimately leading to further traumatization. Many people living with HIV/AIDS encounter losses that impact their sense of identity such as assumptions about life, future expectations, self-esteem, and security (Nord, 1997).

Tez Anderson appearing on NBC's Today Show
Photo Source: NBC's Today Show

Many long term survivors report differing beliefs about why they outlived their peers including the will to live, a healthy lifestyle, support from others, particular treatments, and clinical interventions such as psychotherapy (Sally, 1994). Researchers conducted an 8 site US study consisting of 803 people living with HIV and a co-occurring mental health condition and found that only 59% of individuals were receiving any mental health treatment (Weaver, Conover, Proescholdbell, Arno, Ang, Ettner, 2008). In the same study, Weaver et al. (2008) found that among their participants who were dually diagnosed with a mood disorder, only 40% of them were taking an antidepressant. People who are living with HIV are 2 to 3 times more likely to have depression and anxiety (Mascolini, 2016). Results from the US Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) (2005) found that women with chronic depressive symptoms had a 70% higher risk of AIDS related death than women with who expressed little to no symptoms of depression. WIHS (2005) also found that receiving mental health services halved the risk of AIDS related deaths in participants.

Through the integration of mental health into HIV/AIDS programs and initiatives, we have the opportunity to improve the overall health and outcomes of people living with HIV/AIDS. Direct care professionals are often not skilled in identifying symptoms of a mental health condition nor are they prepared to take action for referrals, management, or additional assessment. Training healthcare providers in the assessment and treatment of common mental health and substance use disorders as well as completing referrals to specialized services must be a part of the infrastructure of our healthcare system. By combining routine depression screening, provider training, proper supervision, and a closer relationship between mental health, substance use, and HIV/AIDS services we can work toward stabilizing the medical and physical symptoms while beginning to address the long term effects of living with HIV/AIDS.

Organizations such as Let’s Kick ASS, Elizabeth Taylor 50 Plus Network, and The Liberation Institute are taking a proactive step in providing services and research for long term survivors of HIV. Tez Anderson, founder of Let’s Kick ASS has led the way to understanding and treating ASS by working to increase research, dedicating June 5th as Long Term Survivors Awareness Day, and offering networking and wellness events in both Miami and New York as well as other cities. Elizabeth Taylor 50 Plus Network in San Francisco also offers support groups to both HIV positive and negative bisexual, gay, and transgender men over 50. They also offer weekly social events, health and wellness learning events, and community service projects. The Liberation Institute is another great example of organizations who are taking a stand for long term survivors of HIV/AIDS. They are a  not for profit mental health organization that offers psychotherapy, professional counseling, yoga, and meditation as well as other groups on a sliding scale basis.

National HIV/AIDS Long-Term Survivors Awareness Day
Photo Source: POZ.com

While offering in person services is incredibly important, it is also important to increase as much access to support and information related to HIV/AIDS as possible. That’s why organizations such as the Well Project have created interactive online communities to increase awareness and access to support and information about HIV/AIDS. The Well Project is a not for profit organization that focuses on women and girls with the mission to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. They offer free online accounts where members can develop a profile and interact with other members through developing communities, joining/creating groups, sharing research/information, and connection to further in-person and online resources as well as group and private chats. Understanding the unique needs of the aging population living with HIV is crucial to developing effective treatments that will increase both life expectancy and overall well being.  HealthHIV has recently developed the Inaugural HealthHIV State of Aging and HIV Survey in order to assess the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS that are over 50 years of age. This survey will allow researchers to create informed medical and consumer education while also addressing the coordination of care for people living with HIV/AIDS.

For people who are HIV positive or are in need of testing or services, HIV.gov offers many tools to identify and connect you with providers and organizations within your zip code. You can find your state HIV/AIDS hotline, a toll free hotline connecting you with local agencies that can help identify what services you are eligible for and assist you in attaining them. HIV.gov also offers a link to the American Academy of HIV Medicines Referral list where one can search a directory of healthcare providers that specialize in HIV management and prevention while also identifying the different types of care settings.

According to the World Health Organization (2019) more than 70 million people have been infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic and about 35 million have died of HIV. The challenges surrounding HIV/AIDS are complex and they will take a unified effort to overcome. We can each play a part in the battle of HIV, whether that is by joining your local AIDS walk, participating in research such as the HealthHIV State of Aging and HIV survey, or joining community awareness and prevention projects.

References:
  • Anderson, T. (2016). What is AIDS survivor syndrome? Retrieved: https://letskickass.hiv/what-is-aids-survivor-syndrome-dc0560e58ff0
  • Asch SM, Kilbourne AM, Gifford AL, et al. (2003) Underdiagnosis of depression in HIV: Who are we missing? Journal of  General Internal Medicine. (18); 450-460
  • Bacon, M., Viktor, W [...], and Mary A. Young. (2005)The women's interagency HIV Study (WIHS): An observational cohort brings clinical sciences to the bench. American Society for Microbiology, (9), 1013 - 1019
  • Cook, J., Grey, D., Burke, J., et al. (2004). Depressive symptoms and AIDS related mortality among a multi site cohort of HIV positive women. American Journal of Public Health. (94) 1133 – 1140
  • Gueler A, Moser A, Calmy A, G√ľnthard H, Bernasconi E, Furrer H, Fux C, Battegay M, Cavassini M, Vernazza P, Zwahlen M, Egger M.(2017). Swiss HIV Cohort Study, Swiss National Cohort. Life expectancy in HIV-positive persons in Switzerland: Matched comparison with general population. US National Library of Medicine. 31(3):427-436. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001335
  • HIV.GOV (2019). US Statistics: Fast facts. Retrieved: https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/data-and-trends/statistics
  • Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ, Hurley LB, et al. (2008) Effects of depression and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and on clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.47, 384-390
  • Mascolini, M. (2016). High depression rates with HIV and its scathing clinical impact. Retrieved: https://www.thebodypro.com/article/high-depression-rates-with-hiv--and-its-scathing-c
  • Murrell , D. (2019). Facts about HIV: Life expectancy and long-term outlook. Retrieved:  https://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids/life-expectancy
  • Nord, D. (1997). Threats to identity in survivors of multiple AIDS related losses. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 51 (3)
  • Nord, D. (1996). Issues and implications in the counseling of survivors of multiple AIDS related loss. Death Studies. 20, 389 - 414
  • Roger, K., Mignonette, J., & Kirkland, S. (2013). Social aspects of HIV/AIDS and Aging: A thematic review. Canadian Journal on Aging. 32 (3), 298 – 306 doi: 10.1017/S0714980813000330
  • Sally, J.(1994). Psychosocial issues of AIDS long term survivors. Families in Society. 75, 6, 324
  • Weaver, M., Conover, C., Proescholdbell, R., Arno, P., Ang, A., Ettner, S. (2008). Utilization of mental heath and substance abuse care for people living with HIV/AIDS, chronic mental illness, and substance abuse disorders. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 447, 449 – 458
  • Weber, R., Ruppik, M., Rickenbach, M., Spoerri, A., Furrer, H., Battegay, M., Cavassini, M., Calmy, A., Bernasconi, E., Schmid, P., Flepp, M., Kowalska, J., Ledergerber, B., et al. (2012) . Decreasing mortality and changing patterns of causes of death in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Retrieved: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01051.x
  • World Health Organization. (2019). Global health observatory (GHO) data. Retrieved: https://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/



Disclaimer: Guest blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the ADAP Advocacy Association, but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about public health-related issues and updates.

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